International Journal of Retail %26 Distribution Management In the rapidly growing e-grocery segment, unattended delivery is an emerging practice with the potential to offer a superior delivery experience. The purpose of this study is to contribute to the body of knowledge about unattended grocery delivery services by identifying and empirically describing the forms and determinants of customer expectations. A multi-case study of potential pioneering companies was conducted to explore customer expectations about unsupervised grocery delivery services. The empirical data collected from direct observations and semi-structured interviews with ten Swedish households were codified and submitted to a single-case and cross-case analysis, which revealed the emerging patterns from which the proposals were formed.
To support further development of the theory, this study presents six proposals on the types, forms and determinants of customer expectations in the face of unattended grocery delivery. This study provides managers with up-to-date information on customer expectations and provides guidance for designing and developing unsupervised grocery delivery services. This study contains the first in-depth analysis of customer expectations about unattended grocery delivery services, which are increasingly being used for last-mile electronic grocery delivery. As an emerging topic in retail research, last-mile delivery is generally studied in relation to omnichannel development, demographic changes, and changes in consumer behavior.
Last-mile delivery is often described as the most complicated, expensive and inefficient part of the supply chain (Gevaers et al. Despite these challenges, last-mile delivery has become a source of market differentiation for retailers (Lim et al. Recent research highlights that last-mile delivery is an important interface between the online shopping experience and customer satisfaction (Vakulenko et al. Research on unattended grocery delivery has addressed operating costs (Punakivi and Tanskanen, 2002; Punakivi et al.
Consumer research on this phenomenon is still in its infancy. Using a questionnaire with 125 consumers and 15 e-retailers, Xu et al. They found that retailer delivery options weren't aligned with consumer preferences. In addition, they stated that consumers in the United Kingdom preferred pickup and delivery points rather than unattended home delivery.
In a survey of French consumers, Goethals et al. Despite the contributions of these studies, little is known about customer expectations regarding unsupervised grocery delivery services. What do consumers expect from unsupervised grocery delivery services? How do consumers form service expectations with respect to unattended grocery delivery services? While customer expectations are based on the pre-purchase phase, they also affect the post-purchase and post-purchase stages, as well as the repurchase experience. Because the offering provider and third-party partners manage some touchpoints along the customer journey, retailers can influence customer satisfaction and, ultimately, customer loyalty (i.e.
Buy and buy back; Lemon and Verhoef, 201.It could be said that the pre-purchase stage is the most complex part of designing and managing the customer experience, since in it the customer develops sequential expectations for the offer and its associated services. Managing customer expectations becomes even more complex when the design and delivery of the service are divided between several actors. This is the case of the e-store, since an external logistics provider generally delivers orders, while the e-retailer monitors the way in which customer expectations are formed during the pre-purchase and purchase stages. Multiple case studies are often considered to be more robust than individual case studies (Herriott and Firestone, 198), as they can improve external validity and mitigate observer bias (Voss et al.
However, implementing several case studies also requires more resources and time (Yin, 201) and risks reducing the depth of analysis when resources are limited (Voss et al. Although the number of cases needed to construct the theory varies, Eisenhardt (198) recommended four to ten cases. Ten cases (cases A—J) were chosen because this number provides a sufficient basis for the construction of theories with limited complexity. Ten cases were selected from a group of households based on these reported socioeconomic factors.
All the selected households had extensive experience in e-commerce and had previously expressed their interest in participating in a pilot project of unattended delivery boxes, which demonstrated that the selected households could be the first to adopt the service. Nine of the selected households consisted of two adults and two minor children, and the tenth household consisted of only two adults. Both adults were employed and the incomes of each household were relatively high. All homes were located in the suburbs of Helsingborg, Sweden.
In addition, direct observations were made to gain a holistic understanding of individual cases. According to Yin (201), direct observations for a case study can range from formal observations, which are in accordance with the case protocol, to random observations, which are often made during fieldwork. In this study, random observations were used that focused on the immediate environment of each home. These additional data help to validate the knowledge obtained in the interviews and to increase the validity of the construct (Eisenhardt, 198).
As suggested by Yin (201), case study protocols were used to guide researchers and a case study database was used to increase the reliability of the findings. Consumers expect the combination of in-service forms they want for unattended grocery delivery services. Consumers want an open system for unattended grocery delivery services. Consumers want nondescript designs for the hardware used in unattended grocery delivery services.
Consumers expect a combination of standard forms of service expected in unattended grocery delivery services. Consumers expect to save time by using unsupervised grocery delivery services. Consumers expect to gain flexibility by using unsupervised grocery delivery services. Consumers expect unattended grocery delivery services to be easy to use.
Consumers predict a sufficient level of security for unattended delivery services. Consumers' personal needs raise their expectations with respect to unsupervised grocery delivery services. Consumers have a personal need to reduce stress when shopping for groceries. Consumers have a personal need to limit social interaction when shopping for groceries.
Consumers have a personal need to increase free time and reduce time spent shopping. Consumers' technological literacy increases their expectations of unsupervised grocery delivery services. Situational factors raise consumer expectations for unsupervised grocery delivery services. This research has several theoretical implications.
First of all, according to the work of Zeithaml et al. This contribution is particularly valuable because the delivery service is often thought of in logistical and operational terms, but rarely in terms of meeting customer expectations. Second, the study contributes to the literature by recognizing customer expectations as an integral part of the pre-purchase phase of the customer experience. Specifically, this research adds to the body of literature on customer experience by identifying consumer needs (proposals 4a—4c), as well as the forms of service expectations (proposals 1a—1c, 2a—2c and.
Future research is recommended to test these proposals using a quantitative approach and further exploring how expectations affect the customer experience in the later stages of buying the customer journey. Third, this research contributes to the intersection of niches between electronic supermarkets and consumer research. The case study provides new information to consumers about the delivery service in the rapidly growing electronic grocery sector. According to the work of Singh (201) and Wilson-Jeanselme and Reynolds (200), the study once again emphasizes the importance of delivery for service excellence in the retail sale of electronic groceries.
Finally, this research adds to the literature on last-mile delivery by exploring an emerging, technology-based delivery service. Specifically, this study adds to the fundamental work of Mckinnon and Tallam (200) in demonstrating that customers predict sufficient security of unattended delivery services (Proposition. The results of this study can be derived from several managerial implications. First, the conceptual model implies that retailers and logistics service providers must understand the personal needs of customers, technological knowledge and situational factors, since these determinants affect service expectations.
Managers should use this information to establish a better fit between service offerings and customer expectations. Second, retail managers are encouraged to measure customer expectations to obtain information on desired service levels, expected standard service, and expected service. The conceptual model and the proposals in this study lay the basis for measuring the level of service expectations. The forms of customer expectations require greater operationalization to measure the level of service expectations.
Third, the findings can guide the design and formation of unattended grocery delivery services. In particular, logistics service provider managers can use the conceptual model and proposals to align their operations with customer expectations. More research is needed to explore how meeting service expectations affects the customer experience. Like any research, this study has limitations.
Case study research is highly context-dependent; this study was conducted with early adopters in Sweden. For example, the effect of the Swedish context can be seen in the identified personal need to limit social interactions when shopping for groceries (Proposition 4b). This proposal seems unique to the Swedish context and highlights the need to study customer expectations with respect to unattended delivery services in a broader context. Additional research could add information from different consumer groups, as well as from other geographical and cultural contexts.
In addition, case study research cannot infer to what extent the three individual determinants affect service expectations. Quantitative research methods could better address the nature, scope, and strength of these determinants. Finally, quantitative research could contribute to the understanding of the topic by testing the proposals provided by this research. Components of customer expectations for unattended food delivery services Reliability of the study and the findings Data were collected from semi-structured interviews and observations.
The researcher checked the transcripts of the interviews with the recordings. Several researchers analyzed the data independently. They systematically investigated the patterns within and between cases. Systematic combination of theoretical and empirical case data to develop a logical model of expectations Proposals developed carefully and examined alternative proposals Provide justification for case selection The research design is based on literal and theoretical replication.
Intentional sampling with predefined criteria was used for the selection of the first to adopt it. It maintained detailed case study protocols. A database of case studies was systematically created and organized that contained descriptions of individual cases, recordings and transcripts, notes and codes Overview of coding patterns and findings Festinger, L, A. Share your general comments Here you will find answers to the most frequently asked questions.
If the order is damaged or the shipping price is too high, the world's most convenient shipping options won't help you get a good review or return to repeat customers. Transparency in pricing, service rates, shipping costs, and other shipping rates, where appropriate, helps indicate how affordable certain products and services are so that each person can make an informed decision. Having grocery delivery services means taking advantage of endless opportunities and increasing customer satisfaction and generating more revenue. Many people trying to buy groceries online for the first time may be apprehensive and concerned about the effect of this new delivery service on their budget.
WorkWave offers many tools for customizing your grocery delivery service, whether you're designing a small, localized business for a specific region or intending to grow your business to include many vendors and vendors. In relation to the daily stress triggers mentioned above, most households reported that their schedules could change unexpectedly, making it difficult to plan food deliveries. As soon as the customer logs in or visits the main page of the grocery shopping and delivery company, a banner should ideally appear with current sales, special offers and discounts. Large grocery delivery models can benefit from offering multiple levels of service to customers and smaller businesses, including retail and wholesale divisions.
First, it provides a theoretical basis for customer experiences with electronic grocery and grocery delivery services. When you look at competing grocery shopping and delivery companies, you'll find a few different models that focus on different ways of buying and delivering your food. Exhaustive models are particularly relevant to customer expectations about e-grocery delivery services, as many points of contact with market players stimulate psychology, the decision-making process, and consumer expectations before the delivery experience. In a short time, home delivery became fast and efficient, with improved systems, local grocery delivery services and prioritizing the experience of residents who depend on this business: grocery delivery.
Some companies have developed a hybrid grocery delivery model, including warehouse storage and partnering with local grocery stores, providing a much larger platform of specialized products for customers. Its application for shoppers is an excellent example of this, since it allows customers to choose between local grocery stores and schedule the delivery times that best suit them. Before you start, as a business owner, it's essential to consider all your options and needs to ensure a successful grocery delivery business. Partnering with small grocery and specialty food stores can offer an excellent option to customers who want to buy a specific food or condiment that doesn't exist in other online grocery stores.